Day 2 :
European University, Cyprus
Keynote: Life-style effects on mental health
Eleonora Papaleontiou is an Associate Professor of Psychology at the European University Cyprus and a Vice-Chairperson at the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences. She has also served twice as a Coordinator of the Psychology program at the European University Cyprus. She has received a BEd degree (Cyprus & Greece), an MA in Education (University of Reading, UK) and a PhD in Developmental/Cognitive and Educational Psychology (Cardiff University, UK). She has published many articles in Greek and international journals and has also published the books: “Children’s and Adolescents’ Mental Health” (in press), “Current Trends in Preschool Curriculum” Tipothito pl/ions, “Metacognition and Theory of Mind”, Cambridge Scholars Publications and “Metacognition: Theory and Practice” Thymari Publications, Greece. She has also given hundreds of lectures to parents and specialized groups related to psychological topics and children’s upbringing issues. Her research interests include: Mental Health, Metacognition, Theory of Mind, Creative and Critical Thinking, Language Development, Spiritual Development, Emotional Development, Emotional Intelligence and the relationship between Religion and Psychology.
Mental health is strongly based on lifestyle factors, which might either contribute to multiple psychopathologies or foster individual and social well-being and preserve and optimize cognitive function. Lifestyle includes a range of related behaviors which contribute or hinder people’s health. Links between health outcomes and particular behaviors have been investigated, but the overall impact on health is largely unknown. More specifically, such factors might include the following: Vivid Light and Clean Air, Avoid Negative Thinking, Quiet Sleep, Daily Spiritual Exercises, Systematic Physical Activity, Deep Breathing Exercises, Positive Effect of Classical Music, etc. (Mouroutis, K., 2007). Health professionals have signiﬁcantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle for mental health. More speciﬁcally, mental health professionals have underestimated the importance of unhealthy lifestyle factors for treating multiple psychopathologies, for fostering psychological and social well-being, and for preserving and optimizing cognitive capacities and neural functions. Greater awareness of lifestyle factors can offer major advantages (Walsh, 2011). This presentation, therefore, reviews research on mental health, the effectiveness of various lifestyle factors and their impact on people’s health.
- Clinical Psychology | Cognitive Behavioural Therapy | Mental Health | Positive Psychology | Psychological Disorders
Willem Fonteijn is a Clinical Psychologist. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as a Trainer for CBT. He is an Enthusiastic Mindfulness Practitioner and works and lives in Amsterdam.
In cognitive behavioral therapy, the body takes an undeserved, modest place. It is precisely the body that you can use you to test the beliefs of clients on functionality. Dysfunctional beliefs lead to dysfunctional emotions and corresponding response representations in the body. This is entirely in line with the therapeutic elaboration of Lang's emotion theory. That is, linking existing stimulus representations to incompatible response and meaning representations. This practical workshop introduces participants to body-oriented contra-conditioning techniques and practices applying the principles of contra-conditioning in various anxiety and mood disorders. The workshop starts with an explanation of Lang's theory and how you can use it therapeutically in contra-conditioning and COMET. A report is done from a short mindfulness group training for cardiology patients with anxiety and mood complaints. Subsequently, both plenary and in subgroups, we practice with body-oriented mindfulness techniques and combining incompatible body postures with common dysfunctional beliefs and emotions. Participants are invited to design body-oriented behavioral experiments for clients from their own practice and to discuss them in subgroups. The workshop ends with a demonstration of the method by the teacher.
Scott Stevens is a journalist, posting regularly on health and alcohol issues for online news services and is a founding influencer at the world's largest medical portal, Health Tap. His intensive evidence-based researches, with journalistic objectivity, blunt personal dialogue and no-nonsense business perspective in his four award-winning health and addiction books.
The decade of the 2010's shelled hospitals and first responders with an explosion of opioid-related illness, injury, and death. Preventable drug overdoses tallied 54,793 lives lost in 2016 – an increase of 391 percent since 1999. Accidental drug overdose deaths increased 327 percent over the same period. The majority of OD deaths (38,000) involve opioids, the drug category most frequently involved in opioid overdoses and growing at the fastest pace includes fentanyl, fentanyl analogs, and tramadol. The fentanyl category of opioids accounted for nearly half of opioid-related deaths. The dirty cat in the litter, heroin is accounted for the second highest number of deaths, claiming 14,606 lives. Western countries struggle with what the opioid cat dragged in: Hard-to-treat opioid addictions, fatal relapses, and needless loss of mainly young lives. Now legislators, first responders, treatment pros, and those in the medical field are forced to focus not on the death toll the cat dragged in, but instead what dragged the cat in.
Every opioid related death is alcohol related
The abuse of drugs, regardless of classification, begins with the permissiveness granted the world's most lethal drug and third-leading cause of all preventable deaths: Alcohol. It's a straight line. Nearly every on-Muslim civilization on this rock has embraced alcohol. As a result, ours is largely a numbing planet, especially in the sedation-happy Americas. This is the root. This is the seed of the opium trade that has gone unstemmed since prehistory. There is legit medical use for opium derivatives: What has driven growth is demand – not by the sick but by people who cannot get the mind alteration they desire through alcohol use alone.
Alcoholics and non-alcoholics alike drink the first drink for the same reason: To relieve a stress. In the U.S., which has a laissez faire agenda toward alcohol since its prohibition failure, the culture embraces a drinking lifestyle. Western culture normalizes alcohol use. In other words, we normalize drug use. What you ignore, you permit. What you permit, you condone. Opioid abuse happens when a person can't get where they want to get with alcohol. The opioid crisis wasn't created by doctors overprescribing, manufacturers wooing doctors, China shipping heroin and cheaper fentanyl via cartels and postal mail. Drinking, especially binge drinking is the pandemic that dragged in the opioid 'epidemic.' Culture condones the buzz, the sedation. We created this monster on our own.
What's the way out?
Legislative attempts to curb use of potentially lethal drugs resemble shooting an arrow and then drawing a target around where it hit. Locking up dealers and traffickers, creating prescription databases and prescribing limits, and promoting Narcan availability all deal with control of the supply and its aftermath. The demand is unchanged. Within a cultural adoration of the buzz, our current crisis can only be curbed by control of the demand. If a drug user wants a drug, they will get that drug. It's the American freedom thing.
In 1967, 72 percent of adult men smoked. Today, 72 percent don't. Prevention works. If there is genuine interest in healthy outcomes and preventing premature death from opioids, permissiveness of the starter or feeder or gateway or predecessor drug has to be addressed on five levels to reduce demand for all antecessor drugs. One of those ways is not legalizing recreational use of marijuana.
When we rethink the drink we can douse the pandemic that begat the current opioid crisis. Legislators and treatment experts must lead the transition from managing aftermaths of the current crisis to retention of the next one. And phase out the ancient alcohol crisis – the elephant in the room – western culture ignores.
Tony Tran is the Member of American Psychological, Psychotherapist and Psychiatrist Association. He has founded the International Ethnic/Immigrant Mental Health Project. He is the Expert in the Ethnic and Cultural Diversity Consultant/Consulting and Moderator. His Transtronics Company has offered the Medical Record Platform and introduced the TIPS (Total Identity Protection Service). His LinkedIn page at Tony Tran BFA-DE has been translated to 70+ languages on Yahoo and 50+ on BING.
As an expert in the ethnic and cultural diversity and in dealing with the psychological problem and/treatment, I have come up with a formation to provide the treatment better bases on the ethnicity uniqueness and cultural background. In the discovery process, we must: Discover the problem from the cultural angle (The Vietnamese’s do not believe in the mental health problem); Find out the cause (The oriental people believe that mental health is the curse, and a shame in the family); and Long term understanding (The devil element). In the treatment process, I have developed 10 steps formation: 1) Establish the trust 2) Create the communication channel 3) Suggest the approach 4) Agreement contract 5) Treatment plan 6) Actual treatment 7) Follow up service 8) Adjustment and evaluation 9) Assessment and 10) conditioning treatment. All of the above will be the subject for exploring further and become the issues for group discussion. I know that you will love my role play in the discussion that all the steps will be exposed and explored to find the proper formation to deal with the Ethnic/Immigrant Mental Health issue.
Sudan International University, Sudan
Eiman Mohamed, 21 years old, and pursued her MBBS from Sudan International University - Sudan (2012 - 2017). She was graduated among the top five. She also worked as local officer of reproductive health including HIV/AIDS (LORA) in Sudan International University medical students association (SIMSA) (2016). She has attended many workshops/trainings in Time management, Leadership, Strategic planning, Creative thinking, Presentation skills and public speaking. Presented her research “prevalence of depression among medical students in Sudan International University" in the annual psychiatric conference 4-7 Jan 2018 in Sudan. Volunteered with Hope Beat charity organization in Sudan (2013-2015). Languages: Arabic "mother tongue", English "fluent", Deutsch “intermediate". Areas of interest: psychiatry, clinical psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience.Seeking to start the specialization outside Sudan in order to get more knowledge and experience
Depression is a mood disorder affects individuals worldwide regardless their age, sex and socioeconomic status. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of depression among medical students in Sudan International University using a descriptive cross-sectional study design in May 2017 – August 2017. We used questionnaires to assess the presence of risk factors for depression, and PHQ-9 for diagnosis of depression. Four hundred and forty students were involved in this study and the result was as follows: 67% of them found to have different levels of depression (49.9% mild, 27.1% moderate, 15.2% moderately severe and 8.1% severe): Year of studying, family history of mental illness, history of child abuse, use of drugs and presence of chronic or mental illness are found to be associated with depression.
Kemerovo State University, Russia
Irina Stanislavovna Morozova has completed her Doctoral degree (Psychology) form Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University. She is a Professor and the Head of the Acmeology and Developmental Psychology Department, and Director of the Institute of the Education at Kemerovo State University. She has published more than 85 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of Russian journals.
Our goal was to develop a model of suicide risk among adolescents considering the inner and external factors determining suicidal risk. We used the combination of measures such as, the hopelessness scale for children (A E Kazdin, A Rodgers, D Colbus), beck depression inventory (BDI), the reasons for living inventory (M M Linehan, J L Goodstein, S L Nielsen, & J A Chiles), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale) Nemchin’s Questionnaire, Kulikov’s Questionnaire, Amirkchan’s Questionnaire, Orel’s Questionnaire to obtain inner risks and our specially developed measure: hopeless situation inventory (K Belogai, Y Borisenko, E Evseenkova, I Morozova) to find situational external risks. In our model, we consider inner determinants of suicidal risk to be hierarchic and on the first level to be united into three components: emotional and regulative component, cognitive and evaluation component and behavioral component. Each component has its own constituents which represent the second level of model. For instance, cognitive and evaluation component (K12) is compiled by reasons for living (K221) life situation evaluation (K222) self-image (K223), while K221 consists of survival coping beliefs (K3211), responsibility to family (K3212), fear of suicide (K3213), fear of social disapproval (K3214) and moral objections (K3215) on the third level of model. We use the membership functions of linguistic variables terms to provide scale values fussification for our model. Our fussy model of suicide risk also considers external determinants to be the triggers of suicide attempt when inner risk is high.
University of Pavia, Italy
Mauro luisetto completed his PhD in Applied Pharmacology from University of Pavia, Italy. He has many publications in the field of Neuroscience, Pathology, Pharmacology and other disciplines. He is also an Independent Reseacher.
Mindset kinetics is involved in various mind and brain phenomena and is very interesting to better understand the global system to observe under a biochemical- toxicological aspect. In this field in some disorder on in business or social and family contest are very relevant some properties of brain- mind like buffer properties, maximum stress condition, time of exposure and kind of kinetics of this negative stress condition. Like biochemistry we can talk that brain-mind can be considered under a kinetics Point of view. We must consider also negative stressing condition measuring in quantitative way the amount and time involved (long or not). Principle like quantum theory in physics can help in considering mind–brain activity under a double approach (light in physics can be explained experimentally or like particle properties or like waew properties): the same phenomena that can be observed by different point of view. Also Eli goldratt theory of constraints can be usefully used to demonstrate the imitated properties of brain and also mind to manage too much high stressing condition. Brain and mind present a limit and this is a link between the two different sciences: psychology and neuroscience. Some mind process involved in amygdala and related system are strongly related to the final effect (crime, behavior, anger et other). More rapid response in manage stressing condition of amygdala vs. frontal cortex can explain the relevant final effect involved. Also some depression status can be involved in a bat mindset kinetics and this can explain some not sufficient effect of some antidepressive molecules and the effect of some meditative techniques. The rationale of this presentation is to more deeply apply biochemical-toxicology principles also in psychology and neuroscience to better verify some analogies between brain and mind. Also some chemical – physics theory as well as some management theory can provide a new experimental method to quantize the amount of stress and the buffer properties of subjects and its related resilience forces. The reported literature gives the right instruments to share some basic principles in neuroscience settings. Also mind and not only brain show a limit in manage high stressing conditions and this can be a useful instrument the correlation between the two different description of the same organ and apparatus.
Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
Alison Dillon has completed her Undergraduate degree in Law, a Post-graduate degree in Psychology and a Master’s degree in Applied Behaviour Analysis. She hopes to pursue a career as a Clinical Psychologist and currently works as an Assistant Psychologist for the Irish Health Service. She has published research on the use of smartphone applications for the reduction of anxiety in Frontiers in Psychology and has presented at the Psychological Society of Ireland’s Annual Conference. She recently conducted a systematic review on Doctors’ knowledge of Autism worldwide and presented this research at the Annual Autism Conference in Miami, Florida.
The number of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) attending university is increasing yet low graduation rates indicate their particular needs are not being met. Research in the area has primarily been exclusively qualitative. This study investigated the experiences of students with ASD undertaking a third-level academic course at Trinity College Dublin (TCD) in order to suggest changes to align current with best practice. It adopted a mixed-method design. First, a qualitative analysis was conducted of best-practice guidelines derived from the most relevant literature to determine the most up-to-date supports available for students with ASD at university. Then, a quantitative analysis was conducted of data derived from 45 TCD students with an ASD who completed a survey designed to ascertain the challenges they experienced in relation to academic work, relationships, mental health, society membership, and sensory issues. The results found that, despite desiring comradeship, the majority of students experienced social difficulties at university, including a lack of friends and bullying. Students also reported a high rate of mental-health difficulties, especially depression and anxiety and these seemed to have bi-directional effects relating to the social difficulties experienced. These findings point to the need for future research to investigate the precise factors that limit the formation of relationships at university among students with ASD and to improve their university experience and support completion of studies. In particular, it should investigate the links between bullying, friendships and internalising problems among these students.
Princess Nora University, KSA
B Alqadheeb is a Junior Clinical Psychologist and has obtained her graduation from Princess Nora University from the exchange program with Erasmus Rotterdam University and presently pursuing her internship in the National Guard Hospital in Riyadh Saudi Arabia.
Introduction: This research looks at the risk and protective factors against depression for females in care centers. Research suggests that individuals, who have been isolated and abused as children are prone to mental health adversities, like depression. The women residing in care centers are susceptible to developing depression due to these developmental adversities and lack of support. Research concerning minorities, like the females in care homes, is still lacking and is needed to improve mental health and increase resiliency. Depression is the fourth leading cause of disability worldwide and is major health concern.
Aim: This research aims to assess potential risk and protective factors (spirituality, coping strategies and social support) against depression for females (aged 18-30) in care centers. This is a non-experimental correlational study that compared the relationship between two variables (depression, protective and risk factors) without manipulation of variables.
Materials & Methods: The study included 85 participants using convenient sampling. Four questionnaires were distributed throughout four centers (two for social rehabilitation centers, two for orphan care homes) in the city of Riyadh; Beck Depression Inventory, Coping Strategies, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Spiritual Well-being Scale. The questionnaires were filled by participants in their allocated center.
Results: The results concluded that high levels of depression corresponded with low levels of social support (r=-0.422, p=0.00), and low scores on a two coping strategies; spirituality (r=-0.259, p=0.039) and confrontation (r=-0.309, p=0.013). High levels of depression corresponded high levels for three coping strategies; self-blame (r=0.336, p=0.005), acting out (r=0.313, p=0.015) and isolation (r=0.398, p=0.001). Higher depression scores are reported in social rehabilitation centers than orphan care homes (m=26, SD=12.602 vs. m=16.9, SD=11.780, p<0.0005).
Conclusion: It is recommended that social support and coping strategies mentioned are implemented within care and rehabilitation plan. Such plans could help to reduce or prevent depressive symptoms in young women residing in these care centers.
Riphah International University, Pakistan
Arooj Najmussaqib has completed her MS degree in Clinical Psychology in 2011 from Government College University, Lahore. She has been practicing as a Clinical Psychologist since 2014 in Islamabad. Currently, she is serving as a Regular Faculty Member at the Department of Applied Psychology teaching at Undergraduate and Post-graduate level since 2016. She is an Author of a book and published and presented papers in national and international conferences.
The phenomenon of study anxiety travels across geographic and cultural boundaries. Study anxiety is being affected by both emotional and cognitive factors. Though there has been an increasing amount of research conducted on study anxiety in adolescence, little is known about the relation of study anxiety, academic achievement and parent child relationship among school children. The present study was aimed for exploring the relation between study anxiety, academic achievement and parent-child relation of school children. For this purpose, indigenous tools like Study Anxiety Scale, Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension Scales and Parent-Child Relationship Scale were administered on the sample of 419 school children; 201 boys and 218 girls from six government schools of Lahore, Pakistan. The results suggest that perceived rejection and distant in parent-child relation cause higher study anxiety and lower academic achievement among school children. Results also depicted that the girls were higher in both study anxiety and academic achievement than boys and boys perceived more parental rejection than girls. Results are discussed in a cultural context proposing a model showing possible links between different environmental influences and study anxiety.
Federal Ministry of Health, Sudan
Onab Ali Sulfab has completed her MBBS and Post-graduate Diploma in Peace and Development Studies. She is currently doing her MA in Peace and Development Studies. She is a Social Activist aspiring to specialize in the field of Social Psychiatry and Behavioral Studies.
This research paper was conducted to review the prevalence of PTSD, its association with age, education, socioeconomic status, marital status and origin of patients who were war veterans in Sudanese armed forces, were diagnosed with PTSD by a consultant psychiatrist, hospitalized in Khartoum based psychiatric hospital and aged between 25-40 years. The importance of this study lies in emphasizing a negative impact of war that is rarely focused on its social and economic disruptive effects on society and the burden that is not well anticipated by the state. The main purpose was to share results with main stakeholders for a better policy making strategy that puts mental health in a priority consideration. PTSD being a mental health disorder has a major effect on the productivity and ability of the sufferer to maintain normal day to day activities. Mental health disorders are associated with increased health care costs as well as productivity losses in the form of absenteeism, short term disability absences and reduced on the job productivity known as presenteeism. The human and economic toll is enormous yet often hidden. “Untreated mental illnesses in the US cost more than $100 billion a year in lost productivity” - According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI). The data collection procedure was through a questionnaire that contained in the first section: personal information including age, gender, marital status and children under one’s care. It also included military service time and combat exposure duration in addition to education level and socioeconomic status. In this first section, the aim was to determine the relationship between PTSD and combat exposure duration and susceptibility with education level and socioeconomic status and to assess the economic burden for those who are the main providers for their families and children and to link the lack of productivity caused by the disorder with the sufferer’s age. The next section regarded any past medical or family history of mental illness, expression and duration of symptoms, the triggering event and the diagnosis of PTSD according to the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual-VI (DSM-VI). The data were collected from several psychiatric hospitals around Khartoum. The results of data analysis and interpretation showed that 83% of patients were under the age of 35 years while 80% received an education level only up to primary school, 85% were from a low socio-economic status, only 7% were married and have children and the majorities were originally from areas of conflict. Percentage of 70 suffered from chronic PTSD (symptoms lasting for more than 6 months) and 95% of the triggering events were direct physical trauma. From this study, we can conclude that PTSD has a direct association with low socio-economic status, low level of education and mainly affects younger war veterans with a greater chance of developing chronic PTSD due to the lack of appropriate mental health care and preventative measurements.
Jain Deemed to be University, India
Dr. Balbinder Singh has completed his PhD at the age of 32 years from Guru Nanak Dev University. He is had been working as Clinical Psychologist for almost five years in Bhatia Neuropsychiatric Hospital and Deaddiction Centre. Further he has experience of teaching Clinical Psychology, Rehabilitation Psychology and Research Methodology in Psychology, in Banasthali Vidyapith, for more than four years. He has published two Psychological tests and has authored one book titled as “Rehabilitation Psychology”. Further, he has published five research papers in national as well as intarenational journals.
India has been known as the land of Saints and Sages who made world spiritualy aware of to deal with various life issues. Different philosophers, thinkers, saint and sages have revealed about human nature i.e., how do we think, perceive, act and use our cognitive functions as well as emotional aspects to solve our problems. Indian system of thought is guided through an interrelated and philosophical religious compilation of spirituality, yog (yoga) and meditation. In Vedas four main branches of Yog (yoga), Karma (action) yog; Bhakti (devotion) yog; Jnana (knowledge) yog; and, Raja (meditation) yog, has been described. According to the Vedas the soul is said to be connected with mind, which connects to the body and this to the outer world causing knowledge and action. The triguna (three virtues) theory addresses three states of mind: Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. Sattva is the balance of pleasure and pain, the practise of truth, and process of acquiring knowledge. Rajas, is when there is an imbalance, the state of being impatient and arrogant and Tamas, is the quality of dullness, to be lazy and have no desire to learn. Principles for social wellbeing are also highlighted that are – being patient, tolerant and avoiding anger. According to Indian thinkers, Saints and Sages there are five foibles – lust, anger, greed, attachment and ego. And these foibles are root cause of many problems in life. According to Gurbani, which means the knowledge provided by GOD, through His messengers like True GURUS (spiritual teachers), Saints, and Great Incarnations, they provided us true knowledge of GOD, there are five principal virtues - Truth, Contentment, Self-control, Patience, and Good-will for all. These five virtues are of immense healing potential for any problem. Further, the GURUS have suggested collective prayers, surrendering to the God and being happy in His cause, and simple living. Developments in the fields of science and technology have revolutionized Human Life at material level. But in actuality, this progress is only superficial: underneath modern men and women are living in conditions of great mental and emotional stress, even in developed and prosperous countries. People from all over the world irrespective of culture and economic background suffer from mental illness and though a number of researches are carried out worldwide but till date it has not been possible to resolve the problem. So, I propose that using ancient Indian techniques, such as yog, meditation, spirituality and following the footsteps of siants, sages and great thinkers, in refurbished manner can be of great help for those who are suffering from any kind of psychological probmlem.
For instance - Yog is a physical, mental, and spiritual practice which has its origin in India. Expansion of consciousness and making oneself the master of one’s mind are the broad objectives of yog. Yog has been known to heal and treat many psychological problems simply by practicing and believing in it. It involves concentration on the breath and body, which makes it a great way to soothe a person’s mind and relieve worries. By helping discharge tension and stress, yog postures and breathing exercises keep a person free from such negative elements. Modern interest in relaxation can be traced to studies on Savasana. Rising popularity of meditation practice links Psychology to Oriental religious practices and philosophy.
Mita Rana is currently working as Associate Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. She started working as Assistant Professor and Clinical Psychologist since March 2003 and co-ordinates the M Phil Clinical Psychology program. She has received her PhD in Psychology in 2012 and is the founding and immediate past President of the Nepalese Association of Clinical Psychologist (NACP). She was the Scientific Committee Coordinator and Member of the Organizing Committee of the International Mental Health Conference Nepal, 2018 held in Kathmandu, Nepal. She has more than 30 research articles published. Her aim is to develop the field of Clinical Psychology in Nepal.
Nepal, a Federal Democratic Republic (2008), is a multilingual, multi-ethnic underdeveloped landlocked country with a population of about 28 million, sandwiched between China and India. Psychology academia is more than half century (1959) old and Master's in Clinical Psychology was introduced in 1980’s and M Phil Clinical Psychology in 1998. There are about 150 Psychiatrists and 30 registered M Phil Clinical Psychologists. Mental health is a less privileged and less researched sector: 1-2% of health budget allocated annually to mental health; 25-30% of the population is estimated to be having some form of mental health related problems and about 90% treatment gap. Stigma, unawareness, lack of trained human resources and mental health services, rough terrain and less government priority are the main barriers for development of mental health sector. Traditional faith healing and pharmacotherapy is the prevalent treatment modality and psychosocial counseling or psychotherapy is yet to be accepted as an effective mode of intervention. Psychosocial interventions for mental health wellbeing came to the forefront after the two huge disasters in the past two decades: (1) armed conflict between the Government and Communist Party, Maoist (1996-2006), in which more than 12,000 people were killed and 100,000 to 150,000 people were internally displaced; (2) Nepal earthquake (April 25, 2015), when more than 8844 lost their lives, 22,000 were injured, over 150 went missing and hundreds of thousands lost their homes and property. Though mental health sector in Nepal is still in its development stage, clinical psychology is also slowly advancing.